Publications

Virus mechanisms and targeting

  1. Scalabrin M., Nadai M., Tassinari M., Lago S., Doria F., Frasson I., Freccero M., Richter SN.* (2021) Selective recognition of a single HIV-1 G-quadruplex by ultrafast small molecule screening. Anal. Chem. 93(46):15243-15252 doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.0c04106

  2. Ruggiero E., Zanin I., Terreri M., Richter SN.* (2021) G-quadruplex targeting in the fight against viruses: an update. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22(20):10984. doi: 10.3390/ijms222010984

  3. Frasson I., Soldà P., Nadai M., Lago S., Richter SN. (2021) Parallel G-quadruplexes recruit the HSV-1 transcription factor ICP4 to promote viral transcription in herpes virus-infected human cells. Commun. Biol. 4, 510 doi: 10.1038/s42003-021-02035-y

  4. Artusi S, Ruggiero E, Nadai M, Tosoni B, Perrone R, Ferino A, Zanin I, Xodo L, Flamand L, Richter SN. (2021) Antiviral Activity of the G-Quadruplex Ligand TMPyP4 against Herpes Simplex Virus-1. Viruses; 13(2):196. doi: 10.3390/v13020196.

  5. Virgilio A, Esposito V, Tassinari M, Nadai M, Richter SN, Galeone A. (2020) Novel monomolecular derivatives of the anti-HIV-1 G-quadruplex-forming Hotoda's aptamer containing inversion of polarity sites. Eur J Med Chem.; 208:112786. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2020.112786.

  6. Ruggiero E, Richter SN. (2020) Viral G-quadruplexes: New frontiers in virus pathogenesis and antiviral therapy. Annu Rep Med Chem., 54:101-131. doi: 10.1016/bs.armc.2020.04.001.

  7. Tassinari M., Zuffo M., Nadai M., Pirota V., Sevilla Montalvo AC., Doria F., Freccero M., Richter SN. (2020) Selective targeting of mutually exclusive DNA G-quadruplexes: HIV-1 LTR as paradigmatic model. Nucleic Acids Res., 48(9)4627-4642. doi:10.1093/nar/gkaa186

  8. Ruggiero E., Lago S., Šket P., Nadai M., Frasson I., Plavec J. and Richter SN. (2019) A dynamic i-motif with a duplex stem-loop in the long terminal repeat promoter of the HIV-1 proviral genome modulates viral transcription. Nucleic Acids Res., 47(21):11057-11068. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkz937

  9. Butovskaya E., Soldà P., Scalabrin M., Nadai M., Richter SN. (2019) The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein unfolds stable RNA G-quadruplexes in the viral genome and is inhibited by G-quadruplex ligands. ACS Infect. Dis., 5(12):2127-2135. doi: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.9b00272

  10. Frasson I, Nadai M, Richter SN. (2019) Conserved G-Quadruplexes Regulate the Immediate Early Promoters of Human Alphaherpesviruses. Molecules 24(13). pii: E2375. doi: 10.3390/molecules24132375

  11. Ruggiero E, Tassinari M, Perrone R, Nadai M, Richter SN. (2019) Stable and Conserved G-Quadruplexes in the Long Terminal Repeat Promoter of Retroviruses. ACS Infect Dis.; 5(7):1150-1159. doi: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.9b00011.

  12. Lavezzo E, Berselli M, Frasson I, Perrone R, Palù G, Brazzale AR, Richter SN, Toppo S. (2018) G-quadruplex forming sequences in the genome of all known human viruses: A comprehensive guide.. PLoS Comput Biol. 14(12):e1006675. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006675

  13. Nadai M., Doria F., Scalabrin M., Pirota V., Grande V., Bergamaschi G., Amendola V., Richter SN., Freccero M. (2018) A Catalytic and Selective Scissoring Molecular Tool for Quadruplex Nucleic Acids. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 140(44):14528-14532 doi: 10.1021/jacs.8b05337

  14. Butovskaya E., Heddi B., Bakalar B., Richter SN., Phan AT. (2018) Major G-quadruplex form of HIV-1 LTR reveals a (3+1) folding topology containing a stem-loop. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 140(42):13654-13662 doi: 10.1021/jacs.8b05332

  15. Tassinari M., Lena A., Butovskaya E., Pirota V., Nadai M., Freccero M., Doria F., Richter SN. (2018) A fragment-based approach for the development of G-quadruplex ligands: role of the amidoxime moiety. Molecules 23(8):E1874 doi:10.3390/molecules23081874

  16. Ruggiero E., Richter SN. (2018) G-quadruplexes and G-quadruplex ligands: targets and tools in antiviral therapy. Nucleic Acids Res. 46(7): 3270–3283 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5909458/pdf/gky187.pdf

  17. Gilbert-Girard S., Gravel A., Artusi S., Richter SN., Wallaschek N, Kaufer BB., Flamand L. (2017) Inhibition of telomerase activity impairs human herpesvirus 6 chromosomal integration. J. Virol. 91(14). pii: e00402-17 doi: 10.1128/JVI.00402-17

  18. Callegaro S., Perrone R., Scalabrin M., Doria F., Palù G., Richter SN. (2017) A core extended naphtalene diimide G-quadruplex ligand potently inhibits herpes simplex virus 1 replication. Sci. Rep. 7(1):2341; doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-02667-3

  19. Perrone R., Lavezzo E., Palù G., Richter SN. (2017) Conserved presence of G-quadruplex forming sequences in the Long Terminal Repeat Promoter of Lentiviruses. Sci. Rep. 7(1):2018; doi:10.1038/s41598-017-02291-1

  20. Scalabrin M., Frasson I., Ruggiero E., Perrone R., Tosoni E., Lago S., Tassinari M., Palù G., Richter SN. (2017) The cellular protein hnRNP A2/B1 unfolds HIV-1 LTR G-quadruplexes and enhances viral transcription. Sci. Rep. 7:45244; doi: 10.1038/srep45244

  21. Artusi S., Perrone R., Lago S., Raffa P., di Iorio V., Palù G., Richter SN. (2016) Visualization of DNA G-quadruplexes in cells during herpes simplex virus 1 infection Nucleic Acids Res.44(21):10343-10353 DOI 10.1093/nar/gkw968

  22. De Nicola B., Lech CJ., Heddi B., Regmi S., Frasson I., Perrone R., Richter SN, Phan AT. (2016) Structure and possible function of a G-quadruplex in the Long Terminal Repeat of the proviral HIV-1 genome. Nucleic Acids Res. 44(13):6442-51 DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkw432 Open Access funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

  23. Perrone P., Butovskaya E., Lago S., Garzino-Demo A., Pannecouque C., Palù G., Richter SN. (2016) The G-quadruplex-forming aptamer AS1411 potently inhibits HIV-1 attachment to the host cell. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents. 47(4):311-316 DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2016.01.016 Open Access funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

  24. Perrone P., Doria, F., Butovskaya, E., Frasson, I., Botti, S., Scalabrin, M., Lago, S., Grande, V., Nadai, M., Freccero, M., Richter, SN. (2015) Synthesis, Binding and Antiviral Properties of Potent Core-extended Naphthalene Diimides Targeting the HIV-1 Long Terminal Repeat Promoter G-quadruplexes. J. Med. Chem. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b01283 ACS Editors’ Choice

  25. Tosoni, E., Frasson, I., Scalabrin, M., Perrone, R., Butovskaya, E., Nadai, M., Palù, G., Fabris, D., Richter, SN. (2015) Nucleolin stabilizes G-quadruplex structures folded by the LTR promoter and silences HIV-1 viral transcription. Nucleic Acids Res. DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkv897

  26. Artusi S., Nadai M., Perrone R., Biasolo MA., Palù G., Flamand L., Calistri A., Richter SN. (2015) The Herpes Simplex Virus-1 genome contains multiple clusters of repeated G-quadruplex: implications for the antiviral activity of a G-quadruplex ligand. Antiviral Res. 10.1016/j.antiviral.2015.03.016

  27. Perrone R., Butovskaya E., Daelemans D., Palù G., Pannecouque C., Richter SN. (2014) Anti-HIV-1 activity of the G-quadruplex ligand BRACO-19. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. doi:10.1093/jac/dku280

  28. Perrone R., Nadai M., Poe JA., Frasson I., Palumbo M., Palu G., Smithgall TE., Richter SN. (2013) Formation of a unique cluster of G-quadruplex structures in the HIV-1 nef coding region: implications for antiviral activity. PLoS ONE. 8(8):e73121. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073121

  29. Perrone R., Nadai M., Frasson I., Poe JA., Butovskaya E., Smithgall TE., Palumbo M., Palù G., Richter SN. (2013) A dynamic G-quadruplex region regulates the HIV-1 long terminal repeat promoter. J. Med. Chem. 56(16):6521-30 DOI:10.1021/jm400914r

  30. Richter SN., Frasson I. and Palù G. (2009) Strategies for inhibiting function of HIV-1 accessory proteins: a necessary route to AIDS therapy? Curr. Med. Chem., 16(3):267-286

  31. Richter SN., Bélanger F., Zheng P., and Rana TM. (2006) Dynamics of nascent mRNA folding and RNA-Protein interactions: an alternative TAR RNA structure is involved in the control of HIV-1 mRNA transcription. Nucleic Acids Res., 34(15):4278-4292. DOI 10.1093/nar/gkl499

  32. Richter SN. and Palù G. (2006) Inhibitors of HIV-1 Tat-mediated transactivation. Curr. Med. Chem., 13(11):1305-1315

  33. Richter SN., Gatto B., Fravolini A., and Palumbo M. (2005) Antiviral 6-amino-quinolones: molecular basis for potency and selectivity. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Letters, 15(19):4247-4251. DOI 10.1016/j.bmcl.2005.06.07

  34. Richter S., Parolin C., Palumbo M., Palù G. (2004) Antiviral properties of quinolone-based drugs. Curr. Drug Targets Infect. Disord., 4(2):111-116

  35. Richter S., Parolin C., Gatto B., Del Vecchio C., Brocca-Cofano E., Fravolini A., Palù G., and Palumbo M. (2004) Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Tat-trans-Activation-Responsive Region Interaction by an Antiviral Quinolone Derivative. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 48(5): 1895-1899

  36. Gelman MA., Richter S., Cao H., Umezawa N., Gellman SH., Rana TM. (2003) Selective binding of TAR RNA by a Tat-derived b-peptide. Organic Letters 5(20):3563-3565

  37. Richter S., Ping YH., Rana TM. (2002) TAR RNA loop: A scaffold for the assembly of a regulatory switch in HIV replication. Proc. Natl. Acad.Sci. USA 99(12): 7928-7933

  38. Richter S., Cao H., Rana TM. (2002) Specific HIV-1 TAR RNA loop sequence and functional groups are required for human CyclinT1-Tat-TAR ternary complex formation. Biochem. 41(20): 6391-6397

  39. Dinman D., Richter S., Plant EP., Taylor R., Hammel A.B., Rana TM. (2002). The frameshift signal of HIV-1 involves a potential intramolecular triplex RNA structure. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99(8): 5331-5336

  40. Hwang S., Tamilarasu N., Ryan K., Huq I., Richter S., Clark Still W. & Rana TM. (1999). Inhibition of gene expression in human cells through small molecule-RNA interactions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 12997-13002.

Tumor-related mechanisms and targeting

  1. Lago S, Nadai M, Ruggiero E, Tassinari M, Marušič M, Tosoni B, Frasson I, Cernilogar FM, Pirota V, Doria F, Plavec J, Schotta G, Richter SN. (2021) The MDM2 inducible promoter folds into four-tetrad antiparallel G-quadruplexes targetable to fight malignant liposarcoma. Nucleic Acids Res., 49(2):847-863. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkaa1273

  2. Ferino A, Nicoletto G, D'Este F, Zorzet S, Lago S, Richter SN, Tikhomirov A, Shchekotikhin A, Xodo LE. (2020) Photodynamic Therapy for ras-Driven Cancers: Targeting G-Quadruplex RNA Structures with Bifunctional Alkyl-Modified Porphyrins. J Med Chem., 63(3):1245-1260. doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b01577.

  3. Recagni M., Tassinari M., Doria F., Cimino-Reale G., Zaffaroni N., Freccero M., Folini M., Richter SN. (2019) The Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in BRAF-Mutant Melanoma Cells are Modulated by Naphthalene Diimide-Like G-Quadruplex Ligands. Cells, 8(10), pii: E1274; doi:10.3390/cells8101274

  4. Doria F, Salvati E, Pompili L, Pirota V, D'Angelo C, Manoli F, Nadai M, Richter SN, Biroccio A, Manet I, Freccero M. (2019) Dyads of G-quadruplex ligands triggering DNA damage response and tumour cell growth inhibition at sub-nM concentration. Chem. Eur. J., 25(47):11085-11097. doi: 10.1002/chem.201900766.

  5. Pirota V, Nadai M, Doria F, Richter SN. Naphthalene Diimides as Multimodal G-Quadruplex-Selective Ligands. (2019) Molecules. 24(3). pii: E426. doi: 10.3390/molecules24030426. Review.

  6. Frasson I, Spanò V, Di Martino S, Nadai M, Doria F, Parrino B, Carbone A, Cascioferro SM, Diana P, Cirrincione G, Freccero M, Barraja P, Richter SN, Montalbano A. (2018) Synthesis and photocytotoxic activity of [1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-h][1,6]naphthyridines and [1,3]oxazolo[5,4-h][1,6]naphthyridines. Eur J Med Chem. 162:176-193. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2018.10.071

  7. Tassinari M., Cimino-Reale G., Nadai M., Doria F., Butovskaya E., Recagni M., Freccero M., Zaffaroni N., Richter SN., Folini M. (2018) Down-regulation of the Androgen Receptor by G-quadruplex Ligands Sensitizes Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer Cells to Enzalutamide. J. Med. Chem. 61(19):8625-8638 doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b00502

  8. Spanò V., Giallombardo D., Cilibrasi V., Parrino B., Carbone A., Montalbano A., Frasson I., Salvador A., Richter SN., Doria F., Freccero M., Diana P., Cirrincione G., Barraja P. (2017) Pyrrolo[3’,2’:6,7]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridines with potent photo-antiproliferative activity. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 128:300-318. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2017.02.008

  9. Spanò V., Frasson I., Giallombardo G., Doria F., Parrino B., Carbone A., Montalbano A., Nadai M., Diana P., Cirrincione G., Freccero M., Richter SN., Barraja P. (2016) Synthesis and antiproliferative mechanism of action of pyrrolo[3',2':6,7]cyclohepta[1,2-d]pyrimidin-2-amines as singlet oxygen photosensitizers. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 123:447-461. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2016.07.051

  10. Lopergolo A., Perrone R., Tortoreto M., Doria F., Beretta GL., Zuco V., Freccero M., Lanzi C., Richter SN., Zaffaroni N., Folini M. (2016) Targeting of RET oncogene by naphthalene diimide-mediated gene promoter G-quadruplex stabilization exerts anti-tumor activity in oncogene-addicted human medullary thyroid cancer. Oncotarget 7(31):49649-49663 doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.10105

  11. Doria F., Nadai M., Costa G., Sattin G., Gallati C., Bergamaschi G., Moraca F., Alcaro S., Freccero M., Richter SN.* (2016) Extended Naphthalene Diimides with Donor/Acceptor Hydrogen-Bonding Properties Targeting G-Quadruplex Nucleic Acids. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 8(12):e84113 DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201600757

  12. Spanò V., Frasson I., Giallombardo G., Doria F., Parrino B., Carbone A., Montalbano A., Nadai M., Diana P., Cirrincione G., Freccero M., Richter SN., Barraja P. (2016) Synthesis and antiproliferative mechanism of action of pyrrolo[3',2':6,7]cyclohepta[1,2-d]pyrimidin-2-amines as singlet oxygen photosensitizers. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 123:447-461. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2016.07.051

  13. Nadai N., Cimino‑Reale G., Sattin G., Doria F., Butovskaya B., Zaffaroni N., Freccero M., Palumbo M., Richter SN. and Folini M. (2015) Assessment of gene promoter G‑quadruplex binding and modulation by a naphthalene diimide derivative in tumor cells. Int. J. Oncol. 46:369-380 DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2014.2723

  14. Sattin G., Artese A., Nadai, M., Costa G., Parrotta L., Alcaro S., Palumbo M., Richter SN. (2013) Conformation and stability of intramolecular telomeric G-quadruplexes: sequence effects in the loops. PLoS ONE. 8(12):e84113. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084113

  15. Nadai M. Sattin G., Palù G., Palumbo M., Richter SN. (2013) Clerocidin-mediated DNA footprinting discriminates among different G-quadruplex conformations and detects tetraplex folding in a duplex environment. Biochim. Biophys. Acta-Gen. Subj. 1830(10):4660-4668 doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2013.05.039

  16. Doria F., Nadai M., Folini M., Scalabrin M., Germani L., Sattin G., Mella M., Palumbo M., Zaffaroni N., Fabris D., Freccero M., Richter SN. (2013) Targeting Loop Adenines in G-Quadruplex by a Selective Oxirane. Chem. Eur. J. 19(1):78-81 DOI: 10.1002/chem.201203097

  17. Doria F., Nadai M., Sattin G., Pasotti L., Richter SN., Mauro Freccero. (2012) Water Soluble Extended Naphthalene Diimides as pH Fluorescent Sensors and G-Quadruplex Ligands. Org. Biomol. Chem., 10(19):3830-3840 DOI:10.1039/C2OB07006E

  18. Doria F., Nadai M., Folini M., Di Antonio M., Germani L., Percivalle C., Sissi C., Zaffaroni N., Alcaro S., Artese A:, Richter SN., Freccero M. (2012) Hybrid Ligand/Alkylating Agents Targeting Telomeric G-Quadruplex Structures. Org. Biomol. Chem., 10(14):2798-2806 DOI 10.1039/C2OB06816H

  19. Nadai M., Doria F., Di Antonio M., Sattin G., Germani L., Percivalle C., Palumbo M., Richter SN., Freccero M. (2011) Naphthalene diimide scaffolds with dual reversible and covalent interaction properties towards G-quadruplex. Biochimie, 93(8):1328-2340 DOI 10.1016/j.biochi.2011.06.015

  20. Verga D., Nadai M., Doria F., Percivalle C., Di Antonio M., Palumbo M., Richter SN., Freccero M. (2010) Photogeneration and Reactivity of p-Naphthoquinone Methides as Purine Selective DNA Alkylating Agents. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 132(41):14625-37. DOI 10.1021/ja1063857

  21. Di Antonio M., Doria F., Richter SN., Bertipaglia C., Mella M., Sissi C., Palumbo M., Freccero M. (2009) Quinone Methides Tethered to Naphthalene Diimides as Selective G-Quadruplex Alkylating Agents. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 131(36):13132-41. DOI 10.1021/ja904876q

  22. Richter SN., Nadai M., Palumbo M., and Palù G. (2009) Topoisomerase I involvement in schedule-dependent interaction between 5-Fluoro-Uracil and Irinotecan in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol., 64(1):199-200. DOI 10.1007/s00280-009-0971-3

  23. Doria F., Richter SN., Nadai M., Collaredo-Mels S., Mella M., Palumbo M., and Freccero M. (2007) BINOL-Amino Acid Conjugates as Triggerable Carriers of DNA-targeted Potent Photocytotoxic Agents. J. Med. Chem., 50(26):6570-6579. DOI 10.1021/jm070828x

  24. Cartei G., Trestin A., Colombrino E., Nadai M., Richter SN., Barzon L., Palù G., and Palumbo M. (2006) Topoisomerases I, IIα and IIβ m-RNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with solid tumor. Preliminary results. Ann. Oncol., 17(5): v25-v28 DOI 10.1093/annonc/mdj945

  25. Richter SN., Trestin A., Barzon L., Nadai M., Cartei G., Palumbo M., and Palù G. (2006) In vitro basis for schedule-dependent interaction between gemcitabine and topoisomerase-targeted drugs in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Ann. Oncol., 17(5):v20-v24 DOI 10.1093/annonc/mdj944

  26. Richter SN., Maggi S., Collaredo Mels S., Palumbo M., and Freccero M. (2004) BINOL quinone methydes as bis-alkylating and DNA cross-linking agents. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 126(43):13973-13979. DOI 10.1021/ja047655a

  27. Richter S., Palumbo M. (2003) Alternative approaches to the discovery and development of telomerase-targeted anticancer drugs. Minireviews in Medicinal Chemistry 3(1): 37-50.

  28. Gatto B., Richter S., Moro S., Capranico G., Palumbo M. (2001). The topoisomerase II poison clerocidin alkylates non-paired guanines of DNA: implications for irreversible stimulation of DNA cleavage. Nucleic Acids Res. 29(20):4224-30.

  29. Supino R., Polizzi D., Pavesi R., Pratesi G., Guano F., Capranico G., Palumbo M., Sissi C., Richter S., Beggiolin G., Menta E., Pezzoni G., Spinelli S., Torriani D., Carenini N., Dal Bo L., Facchinetti F., Tortoreto M., Zunino F. (2001). A Novel 9-Aza-Anthrapyrazole Effective against Human Prostatic Carcinoma Xenografts. Oncology 61(3):234-42.

  30. Sissi C., Moro S., Richter S., Gatto B., Menta E., Spinelli S., Krapcho A.P., Zunino F., & Palumbo, M. (2001). DNA-interactive anticancer aza-anthrapyrazoles: biophysical and biochemical studies relevant to the mechanism of action. Mol. Pharm. 59(1), 96-103

Nucleic acids targeting and analysis

  1. Frasson I., Pirota V., Richter SN.*, Doria F. (2022) Multimeric G-quadruplexes: A review on their biological roles and targeting. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 204:89-102. doi:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.01.197

  2. Lago S., Nadai M., Cernilogar FM., Kazerani M., Domíniguez Moreno H., Schotta S., Richter SN.* (2021) Promoter G-quadruplexes and transcription factors cooperate to shape the cell type-specific transcriptome. Nat. Commun., 12(1):3885. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-24198-2. bioRxiv 2020.08.27.236778 doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.27.236778

  3. Tassinari M, Richter SN, Gandellini P. (2021) Biological relevance and therapeutic potential of G-quadruplex structures in the human noncoding transcriptome. Nucleic Acids Res. 49(7):3617-3633. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkab127.

  4. Nadai M., Richter SN. (2019) G-Quadruplex Visualization in Cells via Antibody and Fluorescence Probe. Methods Mol Biol., 2035:383-395. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9666-7_24

  5. Lago S., Rossetto M., Nadai M., Richter SN. (2018) New immobilization protocol for surface plasmon resonance analysis of the interaction of G-quadruplex nucleic acids and a monoclonal antibody. BBA-General Subjects, 1862(6):1276-1282. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​bbagen.​2018.​03.​002

  6. Scalabrin M., Palumbo M., Richter SN. (2017) Buffer optimization for the detection of G-quadruplex-folded oligonucleotides and their complexes with small molecules by electrospray ionization mass-spectrometry. Anal. Chem. 89(17):8632-8637 doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.7b01282

  7. Doria F., Nadai M., Zuffo M., Perrone R., Freccero M., Richter SN. (2017) Detection of nuclear DNA G-quadruplexes by a red-NIR fluorescent dye: in vitro analysis and cell imaging. Chem. Commun. 53(14):2268-2271. doi: 10.1039/C6CC08492C

  8. Rocca R., Moraca F., Costa G., Nadai M., Scalabrin M., Talarico C., Distinto S., Maccioni E., Ortuso F., Artese A., Alcaro S., Richter SN. (2016) Identification of G-quadruplex DNA/RNA binders: Structure-based virtual screening and biophysical characterization. BBA-General Subjects, 1861(5 Pt B):1329-1340 doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2016.12.023

  9. Lago S., Tosoni E., Nadai M., Palumbo M., Richter SN. (2016) The cellular protein nucleolin preferentially binds long-looped G-quadruplex nucleic acids. BBA-General Subjects , 1861(5, B):1371-1381 doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2016.11.036

  10. Doria F., Nadai M., Costa G., Sattin G., Gallati C., Bergamaschi G., Moraca F., Alcaro S., Freccero M., Richter SN.* (2016) Extended Naphthalene Diimides with Donor/Acceptor Hydrogen-Bonding Properties Targeting G-Quadruplex Nucleic Acids. European J. Org. Chem. 2016(28):4824-4833 DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201600757

  11. Nadai M., Doria F., Germani L., Richter SN., Freccero M. (2015) A Photoreactive G-quadruplex Ligand Triggered by Green Light. Chem. Eur. J. 21(6):2330-2334. doi: 10.1002/chem.201405215

  12. Nadai M., Palù G., Palumbo M., Richter SN. (2012) Differential targeting of unpaired bases within duplex DNA by the natural compound clerocidin: a valuable tool to dissect DNA secondary structure. PLoS ONE 7(12):e52994 DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0052994

  13. Richter SN., Nadai M., Menegazzo I., Moro S. and Palumbo M. (2009) Reactivity of Clerocidin towards adenine: implications for base modulated DNA damage. Org. Biomol. Chem., 7(5):976-985. DOI 10.1039/B819049F

  14. Verga D., Richter SN., Palumbo M., Gandolfi R. and Freccero M. (2007) Bipyridyl Ligands as Photoactivatable Mono- and Bis-Alkylating Agents Capable of DNA Cross-Linking. Org. Biomol. Chem., 5(2):233-235 DOI 10.1039/B616292D

  15. Richter SN., Fabris D., Moro S., and Palumbo M. (2005) Dissecting reactivity of clerocidin towards common buffer systems by means of selected drug analogues. Chem. Res. Toxicol., 18(1):35-40. DOI 10.1021/tx049858i

  16. Richter SN., Menegazzo I., Fabris D., and Palumbo M. (2004) Concerted bis-alkylating reactivity of clerocidin towards unpaired cytosine residues in DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 32(18):5658-5667. DOI 10.1093/nar/gkh898

  17. Richter S., Gatto B., Fabris D., Takao KI., Kobayashi S., Palumbo M. (2003) Clerocidin alkylates DNA through its epoxide function: evidence for a fine tuned mechanism of action. Nucleic Acids Res. 31(17):5149-56.

  18. Richter S., Fabris D., Binaschi M., Gatto B., Capranico G. and Palumbo M. (2004) Effects of common buffer systems on drug activity: the case of clerocidin. Chem. Res. Toxicol., 17(4):492-501.

Bacteria resistance to antibacterial drugs and bacteria targeting

  1. Perrone R., Lavezzo E., Riello E., Manganelli R., Palù G., Toppo S., Provvedi R., Richter SN. (2017) Mapping and characterization of G-quadruplexes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene promoter regions. Sci. Rep. 7(1):5743. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-05867-z

  2. Frasson I., Bettanello S., De Canale E., Richter SN., Palù G. (2016) Serotype epidemiology and multidrug resistance patterns of Salmonella enterica infecting humans in Italy. Gut Pathog., 8:26 DOI: 10.1186/s13099-016-0110-8

  3. Bartolini A., Frasson I., Cavallaro A., Richter SN., Palù G. (2014) Comparison of phenotypic methods for the detection of carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae. Gut Pathog. 6:13 doi:10.1186/1757-4749-6-13

  4. Frasson I., Biasolo MA., Bartolini A., Cavallaro A., Richter SN., Palù G. (2013) Rapid detection of blaVIM-1-37 and blaKPC1/2-12 alleles from clinical samples by multiplex PCR-based assays. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents. 42(1):68-71 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2013.03.006

  5. Frasson I., Lavezzo E., Franchin E., Toppo S., Barzon L., Cavallaro A., Richter SN., Palù G. (2012) Antimicrobial treatment and containment measures of an extremely drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ST101 isolate carrying pKPN101-IT, a novel fully sequenced blaKPC-2 plasmid. J. Clin. Microbiol. 50(11):3768-72 DOI 10.1128/JCM.01892-12

  6. Richter SN., Frasson I., Franchin E., Bergo C., Lavezzo E., Barzon L., Cavallaro A., Palù G. (2012) KPC-mediated resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae in two hospitals in Padua, Italy, June 2009-December 2011: massive spreading of a KPC-3-encoding plasmid and involvement of non-intensive care units. Gut Pahog., 4(1):7 DOI: 10.1186/1757-4749-4-7

  7. Richter SN., Frasson I., Biasolo MA., Bartolini A., Cavallaro A., Palù G. (2012) Ultra-rapid detection of blaKPC1/2-12 by real-time PCR from perirectal and nasal swabs. J. Clin. Microbiol. 50(5):1718-20 DOI 10.1128/JCM.00195-12

  8. Frasson I., Cavallaro A., Bergo C., Richter SN., Palù G. (2011) Prevalence of aac(6')-Ib-cr plasmid-mediated and chromosome-encoded fluoroquinolone resistance in Enterobacteriaceae in Italy. Gut Pathog., 3(1):12 DOI 10.1186/1757-4749-3-12

  9. Richter SN., Frasson I., Bergo C., Parisi SG., Cavallaro A., and Palù G. (2011) Transfer of KPC-2 carbapenemase from Klebsiella pneumoniae to Escherichia coli in the same patient: first case in Europe. J. Clin. Microbiol., 49(5):2040-2042. DOI 10.1128/JCM.00133-11

  10. Richter SN., Frasson I., Cavallaro A., Bergo C., and Palù G. (2010) Characterization of qnr plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Enterobacteriaceae from Italy: association of the qnrB19 allele with the integron element ISCR1 in Escherichia coli. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents. 35(6):578-583. DOI 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2010.02.015

  11. Richter SN., Frasson I., Palumbo M., Sissi C., and Palù G. (2010) Simocyclinone D8 turns on against Gram-negative bacteria in a clinical setting. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 20(3): 1202-1204. DOI 10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.11.135

  12. Richter SN., Giaretta G., Comuzzi V., Leo E., Mitchenall LA., Fisher LM., Maxwell A. and Palumbo M. (2007) Hot-spot consensus of fluoroquinolone-mediated DNA cleavage by Gram-negative and Gram-positive type II DNA topoisomerases. Nucleic Acids Res., 35(18).6075-6085. DOI 10.1093/nar/gkm653

  13. Richter SN., Leo E., Giaretta G., Gatto B., Fisher LM., and Palumbo M. (2006) Clerocidin interacts with the cleavage complex of Streptococcus pneumoniae topoisomerase IV to induce selective irreversible DNA damage. Nucleic Acids Res., 34(7):1982-1991 DOI 10.1093/nar/gkl127